Homo Bulla

Theatre Impressions


For me a tragedy's most important act is the sixth:

the resurrecting from the stage's battlegrounds,

the adjusting of wigs, of robes,

the wrenching of knife from breast,

the removing of noose from neck,

the lining up among the living

to face the audience.

Bows solo and ensemble:

the white hand on the heart's wound,

the curtsey of the lady suicide,

the nodding of the lopped-off head.

Bows in pairs:

fury extends an arm to meekness,

the victim looks blissfully into the hangman's eyes,

the rebel bears no grudge as he walks beside the tyrant.

The trampling of eternity with the tip of a golden slipper.

The sweeping of morals away with the brim of a hat.

The incorrigible readiness to start afresh tomorrow.

The entry in single file of those who died much earlier,

in the third, the fourth, or between the acts.

The miraculous return of those lost without a trace.

The thought that they've been waiting patiently backstage,

not taking off costumes,

not washing off makeup,

moves me more than the tragedy's tirades.

But truly elevating is the lowering of the curtain,

and that which can still be glimpsed beneath it:

here one hand hastily reaches for a flower,

there a second snatches up a dropped sword.

Only then does a third, invisible,

perform its duty:

it clutches at my throat.

 - Wislawa Szymborska (trans. by Krynski & Maguire)


Fig1. 激励人类学文法

Fig2. Literally“公·园”(如果文本可信的话)

Fig3. 现场表演吃书,包您期末满绩




原作者 @约伊兹的傲娇桑 



Leonard means "brave lion", derived from the Germanic elements levon "lion" and hard "brave, hardy". This was the name of a 5th-century Frankish saint from Noblac who is the patron of prisoners and horses. The Normans brought this name to England, though it did not become common there until the 19th century.

Behind the Name: Leonard




天朝版相对于世界版,少了朋友学习时间线(Activity)、语言论坛(Discussion)以及句子讨论(Discuss Sentence),其中后两者是多邻国非常重要的功能,对语言学习者的帮助甚至可能大于课程本身。





Reviewer 2 (Comments to the Author):

1. The paper needs to be rewritten to improve the English and logical expression.


We thank the reviewer for the great suggestion. We have been in accordance with the comments to modify the article to a more proper expression which had been revised by a native speaker. 




作者功力了得,一个简单句能写得九曲十八弯,中间夹带着两打不知怎么杂交出来的语法错误...改个头啊,我替你重写得了= =


layman's misinterpretation



重刷历史摘录文档时再次被画风不可通约性/genre polymorphism逼上天台,面对雨夜、寒风和车流,一边冷得发抖一边心怀不轨。



谷歌搜图时惊现谜之叔本华。追过去一看,竟然来自Pottermore Ilvermony Sorting Ceremony;也不知道是谁编的,可能内部有阿图尔的间谍...



Darkness at Noon by Arthur Koestler


Revolutionaries should not think through other people's minds.

Or, perhaps they should? Or even ought to?

How can one change the world if one identifies oneself with everybody?

How else can one change it?

He who understands and forgives--where would he find a motive to act?

Where would he not?



各个角色说的每一句话都很通顺,但我就是不知道他们为什么要说这些,台词上段跟下段究竟有何关系。有人突然大笑,有人畏惧别人,有人下跪,有人露出谜之神色,而我根本不明白他们在干啥。之前读卡拉马佐夫兄弟前几百页时也有同样的感觉:What the hell is going on? 直到读大篇独白时才开始理解人物、情节与主旨。如果群魔没有独白,我觉得我就要彻底跪了。



Writers are necessarily ambivalent about any kind of recognition—honors, prizes, simple praise—because they are ambivalent about their relationship to the present. The first audience that a writer wants to please is the past—the dead writers who led him to want to write in the first place. Forced to admit that this is impossible, he displaces his hope onto the future, the posterity whose judgment he will never know. That leaves the present as the only audible judge of his work; but the present is made up of precisely the people whom the writer cannot live among, which is why he subtracts himself from the actual world in order to deposit a version of himself in his writing. The approbation of the living is thus meaningful to a writer only insofar as he can convince himself that it is a proxy for the approbation of the past or the future—insofar as it becomes metaphorical.

Rocket and Lightship by Adam Kirsch | Poetry Magazine


问题1. 马克思有没有提到被压迫阶级具体该怎么清算剥削账?好奇马克思本来想推行什么手段,清算到什么程度,从哪一阶级到哪一阶级可以去报仇而非被怼,怼是怎么个怼法;以上各个界限是怎样确定的。越具体越好...

问题2. 历史上打着清算名号的事件,其结局分布如何?有多少变成了底层民众手刃中产阶级/民众自动形成all-against-all arena,统治阶级基本没损失/趁机进行派系斗争;有多少大致推翻了统治阶级,建立了新政权?

问题3. 接续问题2:马克思是否提到,新政权该如何跳出动物庄园循环?如果拿马克思主义当指导思想,头一批领导者基本不可能是底层民众,因此他们几乎必然负有阶级原罪;即使革命成功,该怎么保证他们不会背叛革命、领取统治阶级的冠冕?万一初始领导者真是底层民众,该怎么保证这场革命不沦为太平天国运动?...这个问题实质上是“如何使先锋队自觉执行周期性权力自杀,如何让没有教育优先权的底层拥有足够觉悟——怎样要求新领导者有能力、有意愿反抗旧体制”。

问题4. 既然提到阶级原罪,就可以接续问题1:马克思有没有讲到阶级原罪和/或出身论?是谁最先开始提倡出身论,希望通过出身论解决什么问题?如果应用出身论,是否跟旧政权下的阶级固化异曲同工?(做个非常不上台面的类比:就像统治者拿民众的孩子做了七十五年抽签献祭之后,民众好不容易革命成功,然后一致同意拿前统治者的孩子献祭。)...这个问题最终导向谜之大问:马克思有没有说过,在生产力足够发达、资源分配困境消失之前,如何临时应对/缓和阶级问题?



The Remedies for the Terror of History


从去年十二月到现在,几乎每天都在想无论如何要给Mircea Eliade的Cosmos and History: The Myth of the Eternal Return写一篇至少三千字的感想。Eliade的论证过程漏洞很明显,过度概括的嫌疑不小,但是……不写我难受得慌(。






From Hegel on, every effort is directed toward saving and conferring value on the historical event as such,the event in itself and for itself. In his study of the German Constitution, Hegel wrote that if we recognize that things are necessarily as they are, that is, that they are not arbitrary and not the result of chance, we shall at the same time recognize that they must be as they are. A century later, the concept of historical necessity will enjoy a more and more triumphant practical application: in fact, all the cruelties, aberrations, and tragedies of history have been, and still are, justified by the necessities of the "historical moment." Probably Hegel did not intend to go so far. But since he had resolved to reconcile himself with his own historical moment, he was obliged to see in every event the will of the Universal Spirit. This is why he considered "reading the morning papers a sort of realistic benediction of the morning." For him, only daily contact with events could orient man's conduct in his relations with the world and with God.

How could Hegel know what was necessary in history, what, consequently, must occur exactly as it had occurred? Hegel believed that he knew what the Universal Spirit wanted. We shall not insist upon the audacity of this thesis, which, after all, abolishes precisely what Hegel wanted to save in history--human freedom. But there is an aspect of Hegel's philosophy of history that interests us because it still preserves something of the Judaeo-Christian conception: for Hegel, the historical event was the manifestation of the Universal Spirit. Now, it is possible to discern a parallel between Hegel's philosophy of history and the theology of history of the Hebrew prophets: for the latter, as for Hegel, an event is irreversible and valid in itself inasmuch as it is a new manifestation of the will ofGod--a proposition really revolutionary, we should remind ourselves, from the viewpoint of traditional societies dominated by the eternal repetition of archetypes. Thus, in Hegel's view, the destiny of a people still preserved a transhistorical significance, because all history revealed a new and more perfect manifestation of the Universal Spirit. But with Marx, history cast off all transcendental significance; it was no longer anything more than the epiphany of the class struggle. To what extent could such a theory justify historical sufferings? For the answer, we have but to turn to the pathetic resistance of a Belinsky or a Dostoevski,for example, who asked themselves how, from the viewpoint of the Hegelian and Marxian dialectic, it was possible to redeem all the dramas of oppression, the collective sufferings, deportations, humiliations, and massacres that fill universal history. 

Yet Marxism preserves a meaning to history. For Marxism, events are not a succession of arbitrary accidents; they exhibit a coherent structure and, above all, they lead to a definite end--final elimination of the terror of history, "salvation." Thus, at the end of the Marxist philosophy of history, lies the age of gold of the archaiceschatologies. In this sense it is correct to say not only that Marx "brought Hegel's philosophy back to earth" but also that he reconfirmed, upon an exclusively human level, the value of the primitive myth of the age of gold, with the difference that he puts the age of gold only at the end of history, instead of putting it at the beginning too. Here, for the militant Marxist, lies the secret of the remedy for the terror of history: just as the contemporaries of a "dark age" consoled themselves for their increasing sufferings by the thought that the aggravation of evil hastens final deliverance, so the militant Marxist of our day reads, in the drama provoked by the pressure of history, a necessary evil, the premonitory symptom of the approaching victory that will put an end forever to all historical "evil."

 - Mircea Eliade, Cosmos and History: The Myth of the Eternal Return, Harper Torchbooks, 147-49 (1954)

您看,在某些和Marxism多少少少有点关系的国家, 不论是官方还是一部分勇于发声的民众似乎都具有一种几乎不可思议的justify the unjustifiable能力。这样的思考方式的形成是否和Eliade所描述的这种历史观有关系呢?这些国家走上了应该不怎么符合老马本人心意的道路,不过在我所知范围内他们好像也还是将“把历史的进程视为the epiphany of the class struggle” 这种特色史观保留在了教育和宣传系统中的(。




音乐会开始前大剧院乐团一直在临阵磨枪,全场管弦齐鸣,效果鬼畜如现代音乐。还能听见斯拉夫进行曲的管乐主题2333 还有其他乐团这么逗吗(







顺便种了个草:Stalin and the Scientists: A History of Triumph and Tragedy, 1905-1953